Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Doroud Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box: 133. Doroud. Iran


Biodiesel is a clean fuel produced from recyclable materials such as plant and animal fats used as catalyst. This present study is intended to use animal waste as feedstocks (raw material) to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel production reaction is an esterification reaction in which variables such as reaction time, used solvent. Also, catalysts play a significant role in the intrinsic properties of fuel and the efficiency of the product. In this research study, calcinated eggshell was selected as a catalyst and ethanol as solvent. Biodiesel has been extracted using the substances mentioned above in one phase. The given optimal conditions include 5 h period, the amount of catalyst (4.5 g), and the quantity of solvent (13.91 mL). The produced sample was derived under conditions with the maximum quantity and physical properties, including cloud point and pour point, viscosity, and density in respective of producing biodiesel fuels from other materials. The results revealed reduction of properties at cloud point and pour point.

Graphical Abstract

Production of biodiesel from animal waste using eggshell catalyst


Main Subjects

[1]. Toldrá-Reig F., Mora L., Toldrá F. Appl. Sci., 2020, 10:3644
[2]. HadiJume B. AliGabris M. Rashidi Nodeh H. Rezania S. Cho J. Renewable Energy, 2020, 162:2182
[3]. Balat M., Balat H. Appl Energ., 2010, 87:1815
[4]. Gaur A. Mishra S. Chowdhury S. Baredar P. Verma P. Materialtoday: Proceedings, 2021, 46:5187
[5]. Mohadesi M., Aghel B., Maleki M., Ansari A. Fuel., 2020, 263:116659
[6]. Zhong L., Feng Y., Wang G., Wang Z., Bilal M., Lv H., Jia S., Cui J. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2020, 152:207
[7]. Samart C., Seetongkittikul P., Sookman C. Fuel Process Technol., 2009, 90:922
[8]. Hatrooshi A.S.A., Eze V.C., Harvey A.P. Renewable Energy., 2020, 145:99
[9]. Ramus S., Lingaiah N., Prabhavathi Devi B.L.A., Prasad R.B.N., Suryanarayana I. Sai Prasa P.S. Appl Catal A: Gen., 2004, 276:163
[10]. Gholami A. Pourfayaz F. Maleki A. Front. Energy Res., 2020, 8:1
[11]. Moazeni F., Chen Y.C., Zhang G. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019, 216:117
[12]. Balat M., Balat H. Appl Energ., 2010, 87:1815
[13]. Goli J., Sahu O. Renewable Energy., 2018, 128:142
[14]. Bohlouli A., Mahdavian L. Biofuels., 2021, 12:885
[15]. Malins K. Fuel Processing Technology., 2018, 176:302
[16]. Kafuku G., Mbarawa M. Fuel., 2010, 89:2556
[17]. Khan H.M., Iqbal T., Ali H.C., Javaid A., Cheema L.L. Fuel., 2020, 277:118091
[18]. Liu Y., Yang X., Adamu A., Zhu Z. Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 2021, 4:100091