Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 10048, Taipei, Taiwan

3 Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Graphene/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites (NCs) is attracted more attention in bone tissue engineering due to their osteoconductive properties. Adding different ionic substitutions to graphene/hydroxyapatite NCs may increase its osteogenic properties. In this research study, bismuth doped hydroxyapatite nano-rods (Bi-nHA) were decorated on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The formation and structure of the nanocomposites (rGO/Bi-nHA) was characterized using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffracti

Graphical Abstract

Reduced graphene oxide/nanohydroxy Apatite-Bismuth nanocomposites for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

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